Sunday, March 14, 2010

Apakah di samping Allah ada tuhan(yang lain)?

Surah an-Naml,ayat 60,Firman Allah swt:

Bukankah Dia(Allah) yang menciptakan langit dan bumi dan yang menurunkan air dari langit untukmu,lalu Kami tumbuhkan dengan air itu kebun-kebun yang berpemandangan indah?Kamu tidak akan mampu menumbuhkan pohon-pohonnya.Apakah di samping Allah ada tuhan(yang lain)?Sebenarnya mereka adalah orang-orang yang menyimpang(dari kebenaran)

Surah an-Naml,ayat 61,Firman Allah swt:

Bukankah Dia(Allah) yang menjadikan bumi sebagai tempat berdiam,yang menjadikan sungai-sungai di celah-celahnya,yang menjadikan gunung-gunung untuk mengukuhkannya dan yang menjadi pemisah antara dua laut(muara,estuary).Apakah di samping Allah ada tuhan(yang lain?)Sebenarnya kebanyakan mereka tidak mengetahui.

Surah an-Naml,ayat 62,Firman Allah swt:

Bukankah Dia(Allah) yang memperkenankan doa orang yang berada dalam kesulitan apabila dia berdoa kepada-Nya,dan menghilangkan kesusahan dan menjadikan kamu(manusia) sebagai khalifah(pemimpin) di bumi?Apakah di samping Allah ada tuhan(yang lain)?Sedikit sekali(nikmat Allah) yang kamu ingat.

Surah an-Naml,ayat 63,Firman Allah swt:

Bukankah Dia(Allah) yang memberi petunjuk kepada kamu dalam kegelapan di daratan dan lautan dan yang mendatangkan angin sebagai khabar gembira sebelum(kedatangan)rahmat-Nya?Apakah di samping Allah ada tuhan(yang lain)?Mahatinggi Allah terhadap apa yang mereka persekutukan.

Surah an-Naml,ayat 64,Firman Allah swt:

Bukankah Dia(Allah) yang menciptakan (makhluk) dari permulaannya,kemudian mengulanginya(lagi) dan memberikan rezeki kepadamu dari langit dan bumi?Apakah di samping Allah ada tuhan(yang lain)?Katakanlah,'Kemukakanlah bukti kebenaranmu,jika kamu orang yang benar'.

Classification(estuary) based on Hydrography.

Salt wedge estuaries

In this type of estuary, river output greatly exceeds marine input and tidal effects have a minor importance. Fresh water floats on top of the seawater in a layer that gradually thins as it moves seaward. The denser seawater moves landward along the bottom of the estuary, forming a wedge-shaped layer that is thinner as it approaches land. As a velocity difference develops between the two layers, shear forces generate internal waves at the interface, mixing the seawater upward with the freshwater. An example of a salt wedge estuary is the Mississippi River.

Partially mixed estuaries

As tidal forcing increases, river output becomes less than the marine input. Here, current induced turbulence causes mixing of the whole water column such that salinity varies more longitudinally rather than vertically, leading to a moderately stratified condition. Examples include the Chesapeake Bay and Narragansett Bay.

Vertically homogenous estuaries

Tidal mixing forces exceed river output, resulting in a well mixed water column and the disappearance of the vertical salinity gradient. The freshwater-seawater boundary is eliminated due to the intense turbulent mixing and eddy effects. The lower reaches of the Delaware Bay and the Raritan River in New Jersey are examples of vertically homogenous estuaries.

Inverse estuary

Inverse estuaries occur in dry climates where evaporation greatly exceeds the inflow of fresh water. A salinity maximum zone is formed, and both riverine and oceanic water flow close to the surface towards this zone.This water is pushed downward and spreads along the bottom in both the seaward and landward direction.An example of an inverse estuary is Spencer Gulf, South Australia.

Intermittent estuaries

Estuary type varies dramatically depending on freshwater input, and is capable of changing from a wholly marine embayment to any of the other estuary types.

Tectonically produced estuary.

These estuaries are formed by subsidence or land cut off from the ocean by land movement associated with faulting, volcanoes, and landslides. Inundation from eustatic sea level rise during the Holocene Epoch has also contributed to the formation of these estuaries. There are only a small number of tectonically produced estuaries; one example is the San Francisco Bay, which was formed by the crustal movements of the San Andreas fault system causing the inundation of the lower reaches of the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers.[5]

Fjord type estuary.

Fjord type estuaries are formed in deeply eroded valleys formed by glaciers. These U-shaped estuaries typically have steep sides, rock bottoms, and underwater sills contoured by glacial movement. The shallowest area of the estuary occurs at the mouth, where terminal glacial deposits or rock bars form sills that restrict water flow. In the upper reaches of the estuary, the depth can exceed 300 meters. The width-to-depth ratio is generally small. When estuaries contain very shallow sills, tidal oscillations only affect near surface waters to sill depth, and waters below sill depth may remain stagnant for very long periods of time, resulting in only an occasional exchange of the deep water of the estuary with the ocean. If the sill depth is deep, water circulation is less restricted and a slow, but steady exchange of water from the estuary and the ocean occur. Fjord-type estuaries can be found along the coasts of Alaska, eastern Canada, Greenland, Iceland, New Zealand, and Norway.

Lagoon-Type Or Bar-Built Estuary.

These estuaries are semi-isolated from ocean waters by barrier beaches (barrier islands and barrier spits). Formation of barrier beaches partially encloses the estuary with only narrow inlets allowing contact with the ocean waters. Bar-built estuaries typically develop on gently sloping plains located along tectonically stable edges of continents and marginal sea coasts. They are extensive along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the U.S. in areas with active coastal deposition of sediments and where tidal ranges are less than 4 meters. The barrier beaches that enclose bar-built estuaries have been developed in several ways: 1) upbuilding of offshore bars from wave action, in which sand from the seafloor is deposited in elongate bars parallel to the shoreline, 2) reworking of sediment discharge from rivers by wave, current, and wind action into beaches, overwash flats, and dunes, 3) engulfment of mainland beach ridges (ridges developed from the erosion of coastal plain sediments approximately 5,000 years ago) due to sea level rise and resulting in the breaching of the ridges and flooding of the coastal lowlands, forming shallow lagoons, 4) elongation of barrier spits from the erosion of headlands, with the spit growth occurring in the direction of the littoral drift due to the action of longshore currents. Barrier beaches form in shallow water and are generally parallel to the shoreline, resulting in long, narrow estuaries. The average water depth is usually less than 5 m, and rarely exceed 10 m. Examples of bar-built estuaries include Barnegat Bay, New Jersey, Laguna Madre, Texas, and Pamlico Sound, North Carolina.

Drowned River Valley Estuary.

Many drowned river valley estuaries were formed between about 15,000 and 6000 years ago following the end of the Wisconsin (or 'Devensian') glaciation when a eustatic rise in sea level of 100 m to 130 m, flooded river valleys that were cut into the landscape when sea level was lower, creating the estuarine systems. Additionally, the general subsidence of coastal regions contributed to the development of drowned river valleys. Well developed drowned river valleys are generally found on coastlines with low, wide coastal plains. Their width-to-depth ratio is typically large, appearing wedge-shaped in the inner part and broadening and deepening seaward. Water depths rarely exceed 30 meters. Examples of this type of estuary include the Chesapeake Bay and Delaware Bay, along the U.S. mid-Atlantic coast, and along the U.S. Gulf coast, Galveston Bay and Tampa Bay[4].

WhaT Is Estuaries??

An estuary is a partly enclosed coastal body of water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea.

Estuaries form a transition zone between river environments and ocean environments and are subject to both marine influences, such as tides, waves, and the influx of saline water; and riverine influences, such as flows of fresh water and sediment. The inflow of both seawater and freshwater provide high levels of nutrients in both the water column and sediment, making estuaries among the most productive natural habitats in the world.

A more thorough definition of an estuary would be “a semi-enclosed body of water connected to the sea as far as the tidal limit or the salt intrusion limit and receiving freshwater runoff; however the freshwater inflow may not be perennial, the connection to the sea may be closed for part of the year and tidal influence may be negligible.”

This definition includes classical estuaries as well as fjords, lagoons, river mouths, and tidal creeks. Estuaries are a dynamic ecosystem with a connection with the open sea through which the seawater enters accordingly to the rhythm of the tides. The seawater entering the estuary is diluted by the freshwater flowing from rivers and streams. The pattern of dilution varies in different estuaries and is dependent on the volume of freshwater, tidal amplitude range, and the extent of evaporation from the water within the estuary. [2]

Thursday, February 18, 2010

See This Is Intertidal Zone and Living.

The Barnacles(Teritip)

The Intertidal Zone

The intertidal zone, also known as the littoral zone, in marine aquatic environments is the area of the foreshore and seabed that is exposed to the air at low tide and submerged at high tide, ie the area between tide marks.

In the intertidal zone the most common organisms are small and most are relatively uncomplicated organisms. This is for a variety of reasons; firstly the supply of water which marine organisms require to survive is intermittent. Secondly, the wave action around the shore can wash away or dislodge poorly suited or adapted organisms. Thirdly, because of the intertidal zone's high exposure to the sun the temperature range can be extreme from very hot to near freezing in frigid climates (with cold seas). Lastly, the salinity is much higher in the intertidal zone because salt water trapped in rock pools evaporates leaving behind salt deposits. These four factors make the intertidal zone an extreme environment in which to live.

A typical rocky shore can be divided into a spray zone (also known as the Supratidal Zone, which is above the spring high-tide line and is covered by water only during storms, and an intertidal zone, which lies between the high and low tidal extremes. Along most shores, the intertidal zone can be clearly separated into the following subzones: high tide zone, middle tide zone, and low tide zone.

High tide zone (upper mid-littoral)

The high tide zone is flooded during high tide only, and is a highly saline environment. The abundancy of water is not high enough to sustain large amounts of vegetation, although some do survive in the high tide zone. The predominant organisms in this subregion are anemones, barnacles, brittle stars, chitons, crabs, green algae, isopods, limpets, mussels, sea stars, snails, whelks and some marine vegetation. The high tide zone can also contain rock pools inhabited by small fish and larger seaweeds. Another organism found here is the hermit crab, which because of its portable home in the form of a shell does extremely well as it is sheltered from the high temperature range to an extent and can also carry water with it in its shell. Consequently there is generally a higher population of hermit crabs to common crabs in the high tide zone. Life is much more abundant here than in the spray

Middle tide zone (lower mid-littoral)

The middle tide zone is submerged and flooded for approximately equal periods of time per tide cycle. Consequently temperatures are less extreme due to shorter direct exposure to the sun, and therefore salinity is only marginally higher than ocean levels. However wave action is generally more extreme than the high tide and spray zones. The middle tide zone also has much higher population of marine vegetation, specifically seaweeds. Organisms are also more complex and often larger in size than those found in the high tide and splash zones. Organisms in this area include anemones, barnacles, chitons, crabs, green algae, isopods, limpets, mussels, sea lettuce, sea palms, sea stars, snails, sponges, and whelks. Again rock pools can also provide a habitat for small fish, shrimps, krill, sea urchins and zooplankton. Apart from being more populated, life in the middle tide zone is more diversified than the high tide and splash zones.

Low tide zone (lower littoral)

This subregion is mostly submerged - it is only exposed at the point of low tide and for a longer period of time during extremely low tides. This area is teeming with life; the most notable difference with this subregion to the other three is that there is much more marine vegetation, especially seaweeds. There is also a great biodiversity. Organisms in this zone generally are not well adapted to periods of dryness and temperature extremes. Some of the organisms in this area are abalone, anemones, brown seaweed, chitons, crabs, green algae, hydroids, isopods, limpets, mussels, nudibranchs, sculpin, sea cucumber, sea lettuce, sea palms, sea stars, sea urchins, shrimp, snails, sponges, surf grass, tube worms, and whelks.

Creatures in this area can grow to larger sizes because there is more energy in the localised ecosystem and because marine vegetation can grow to much greater sizes than in the other three intertidal subregions due to the better water coverage: the water is shallow enough to allow plenty of light to reach the vegetation to allow substantial photosynthetic activity, and the salinity is at almost normal levels. This area is also protected from large predators such as large fish because of the wave action and the water still being relatively shallow.

Wednesday, January 27, 2010

Aquatic Ecosystem


Edited by:Ummu Syauqina Nurharyati Husna

An aquatic ecosystem is an ecosystem located in a body of water. Communities of organisms that are dependent on each other and on their environment live in aquatic ecosystems. The two main types of aquatic ecosystems are marine ecosystems and freshwater ecosystems.

Main article: Marine ecosystem

Marine ecosystems cover approximately 71% of the Earth's surface and contain approximately 97% of the planet's water. They generate 32% of the world's net primary production.

They are distinguished from freshwater ecosystems by the presence of dissolved compounds, especially salts, in the water. Approximately 85% of the dissolved materials in seawater are sodium and chlorine. Seawater has an average salinity of 35 parts per thousand (ppt) of water. Actual salinity varies among different marine ecosystems.

Marine ecosystems can be divided into the following zones: oceanic (the relatively shallow part of the ocean that lies over the continental shelf); profundal (bottom or deep water); benthic (bottom substrates); intertidal (the area between high and low tides); estuaries; salt marshes; coral reefs; and hydrothermal vents (where chemosynthetic sulfur bacteria form the food base).

Classes of organisms found in marine ecosystems include brown algae, dinoflagellates, corals, cephalopods, echinoderms, and sharks. Fish caught in marine ecosystems are the biggest source of commercial foods obtained from wild populations.

Environmental problems concerning marine ecosystems include unsustainable exploitation of marine resources (for example overfishing of certain species), marine pollution, climate change, and building on coastal areas.


Main article: Freshwater ecosystem

Freshwater ecosystems cover 0.8% of the Earth's surface and contain 0.009% of its total water. They generate nearly 3% of its net primary production.

Freshwater ecosystems contain 41% of the world's known fish species.

There are three basic types of freshwater ecosystems:

Lentic: slow-moving water, including pools, ponds, and lakes.

Lotic: rapidly-moving water, for example streams and rivers.

Wetlands: areas where the soil is saturated or inundated for at least part of the time.

Lake ecosystems can be divided into zones: pelagic (open offshore waters); profundal; littoral (nearshore shallow waters); and riparian (the area of land bordering a body of water).

Two important subclasses of lakes are ponds, which typically are small lakes that intergrade with wetlands, and water reservoirs. Many lakes, or bays within them, gradually become enriched by nutrients and fill in with organic sediments, a process called eutrophication. Eutrophication is accelerated by human activity within the water catchment area of the lake.

Freshwater ecosystem.

The major zones in river ecosystems are determined by the river bed's gradient or by the velocity of the current. Faster moving turbulent water typically contains greater concentrations of dissolved oxygen, which supports greater biodiversity than the slow moving water of pools.

These distinctions forms the basis for the division of rivers into upland and lowland rivers. The food base of streams within riparian forests is mostly derived from the trees, but wider streams and those that lack a canopy derive the majority of their food base from algae. Anadromous fish are also an important source of nutrients. Environmental threats to rivers include loss of water, dams, chemical pollution and introduced species.

Wetlands are dominated by vascular plants that have adapted to saturated soil. Wetlands are the most productive natural ecosystems because of the proximity of water and soil. Due to their productivity, wetlands are often converted into dry land with dykes and drains and used for agricultural purposes. Their closeness to lakes and rivers means that they are often developed for human settlement.

Main article: Pond

These are a specific type of freshwater ecosystems that are largely based on the autotroph algae which provide the base trophic level for all life in the area. The largest predator in a pond ecosystem will normally be a fish and in-between range smaller insects and microorganisms. It may have a scale of organisms from small bacteria to big creatures like water snakes, beetles, water bugs, frogs, tadpoles, and turtles. This is important for the environment.

Aquatic ecosystems perform many important environmental functions. For example, they recycle nutrients, purify water, attenuate floods, recharge ground water and provide habitats for wildlife.

Aquatic ecosystems are also used for human recreation, and are very important to the tourism industry, especially in coastal regions.

The health of an aquatic ecosystem is degraded when the ecosystem's ability to absorb a stress has been exceeded. A stress on an aquatic ecosystem can be a result of physical, chemical or biological aterations of the environment. Physical alterations include changes in water temperature, water flow and light availability. Chemical alterations include changes in the loading rates of biostimulatory nutrients, oxygen consuming materials, and toxins. Biological alterations include the introduction of exotic species. Human populations can impose excessive stresses on aquatic ecosystems.

Abiotic characteristics

An ecosystem is composed of biotic communities and abiotic environmental factors, which form a self-regulating and self-sustaining unit. Abiotic environmental factors of aquatic ecosystems include temperature, salinity, and flow.

The amount of dissolved oxygen in a water body is frequently the key substance in determining the extent and kinds of organic life in the water body. Fish need dissolved oxygen to survive. Conversely, oxygen is fatal to many kinds of anaerobic bacteria.

The salinity of the water body is also a determining factor in the kinds of species found in the water body. Organisms in marine ecosystems tolerate salinity, while many freshwater organisms are intolerant of salt. Freshwater used for irrigation purposes often absorb levels of salt that are harmful to freshwater organisms.Though some salt can be good for organisms.

Biotic characteristics

The organisms (also called biota) found in aquatic ecosystems are either autotrophic or heterotrophic.

Autotrophic organisms

Autotrophic organisms are producers that generate organic compounds from inorganic material. Algae use solar energy to generate biomass from carbon dioxide and are the most important autotrophic organisms in aquatic environments.

Chemosynthetic bacteria are found in benthic marine ecosystems. These organisms are able to feed on hydrogen sulfide in water that comes from volcanic vents. Great concentrations of animals that feed on this bacteria are found around volcanic vents. For example, there are giant tube worms (Riftia pachyptila) 1.5m in length and clams (Calyptogena magnifica) 30cm long.

Heterotrophic organisms

Heterotrophic organisms consume autotrophic organisms and use the organic compounds in their bodies as energy sources and as raw materials to create their own biomass.

Euryhaline organisms are salt tolerant and can survive in marine ecosystems, while stenohaline or salt intolerant species can only live in freshwater environments.

Sunday, January 10, 2010

Ecology Report,Durian Valley of USM

Report by,
Nurharyati Husna Bt Mohd Khalid(102144)
BST 203-Population and Community Ecology
Explorations to Durian Valley in USM and introduced to Eco-Hub USM.
1.To observe the green parts of trees and organism living in the Durian Valley of USM.
2.To learn how to reuse the unuseful area into conserved area for our sustainable ecosystem.
Populations are members of a species interact in group in a specific area.Community is a populations of different species living and interacting in an area.Ecosystem is a community interacting with its physical environment of matter and energy.
In most natural populations individuals vary slightly in their genetic make-up,thus they do not all look or act alike.This is known as genetic diversity.Habitat is where these populations lives.
Having many different species appears to increase the sustainability of many communities.Communities with more species tend to have a higher net primary production(NPP) and can be more resilient than simpler ones.
Human activities are disrupting ecosystem services that support and sustain all life and economies.Ecologist says that undisturbed systems are not always in equilibrium or balance does not always mean they are unimportant parts of the earth’s natural capital that help promote ecosystem sustainability.Therefore,scientist have developed a number of ways to rehabilitate and restore degraded ecosystems and created artificial ecosystem.
Ecological restorations is the process of repairing damage caused by human to the biodiversity and dynamics of ecosystems.Restoration trying to return a particular degraded habitat or ecosystem to a condition as similar as possible to its natural state.Rehabilitation is attempting to turn a degrade habitat or ecosystem back into a functional or useful ecosystem without trying to restore it to its original condition.Creating artificial ecosystems is an examples is the creation of artificial wetlands to help reduce flooding and to treat sewage.
We went into Durian Valley,to see the green parts of the USM that is build to conserved the ecosystem and becoming habitats for flora and fauna.Amazingly,before Durian Valley is build the land is unused.Thus,this unsused land is rehabilitation into Durian Valley that conserved many biodiversity of organisms,and also there are species that are introduced in this Durian Valley.Our Cancellor(USM Cancellor),Prof Dzulkifli ambition he says,
USM will set its vision of a sustainable tomorrow while keenly promoting values such as equity, accessibility, availability, affordability and quality as the optimal endpoints.Concomitantly, USM will embrace the protection of the ecosystem,the conservation and restoration of resources as well as the development of human and intellectual capitals for this purpose. USM will position itself to facilitate in meeting existing (e.g., Millennium Development Goals) andother future global aspirations towards the upliftment of the billions trapped at the bottom of the socioeconomic pyramid
We gather at Eco-Hub to hear briefing about the importance of Durian Valley and to conserved our ecosystem,certainly,Our Durian Valley is helping the birds populations to grow and we diversity of birds can be found in USM as we conserved the ecosystems.It is greatful to see the pictures of birds that were captured in the USM area.
Ecologist develop mathematical and other models to stimulate the behavior of ecosystems.First,ecologist need baseline data on the ecosystem to see how the ecosystem change and develop effective strategies for preventing or slowing their degradation.We need system measurement to define objectives,identify and inventory variables.Then,obtain baseline data on variables.
Data analysis is done to make statistical analysis of relationships among variables.We are able to determine significant interactions.System modeling by constructing mathematical model describing interactions among variables.
Durian Valley is one of the method to conserved our ecosystem,and USM will conserved living organism from extinction.This is a very good planning for sustainable development.